There are various Hebrew
(1.) Heb. Jehovah,
has been rendered in the English Bible LORD,
printed in small capitals. This is the proper name of the God
of the Hebrews.
The form "Jehovah" is retained only in Ex. 6:3
; Ps. 83:18
; Isa. 12:2; 26:4
, both in the Authorized and the Revised Version.
(2.) Heb. 'adon, means one possessed of absolute control. It denotes a master, as of slaves (Gen. 24:14, 27
), or a ruler of his subjects (45:8), or a husband,
of his wife
The old plural form of this Hebrew word is 'adonai. From a superstitious reverence for the name "Jehovah," the Jews, in reading their Scriptures, whenever that name occurred, always pronounced it 'Adonai.
(3.) Greek kurios, a supreme master, etc. In the LXX. this is invariably used for "Jehovah" and "'Adonai."
(4.) Heb. ba'al, a master, as having domination. This word is applied to human relations, as that of husband, to persons skilled in some art or profession, and to heathen
deities. "The men of Shechem," literally "the baals of Shechem" (Judg. 9:2, 3
). These were the Israelite inhabitants who had reduced the Canaanites
to a condition of vassalage (Josh. 16:10; 17:13
(5.) Heb. seren, applied exclusively to the "lords of the Philistines" (Judg. 3:3
). The LXX. render it by satrapies. At this period the Philistines
were not, as at a later period (1 Sam. 21:10
), under a kingly government. (See Josh. 13:3
; 1 Sam. 6:18
.) There were five such lordships, viz., Gath, Ashdod, Gaza, Ashkelon,